Objectives: We performed a cross-sectional study on anthropometric and laboratory characteristics of inhabitants of Rampasasa (Flores, Indonesia). Adults were categorised according to ancestry into three groups: pygmoid (P/P, offspring of pygmoid parents, n=8), mixed pygmoid (P/N, offspring of pygmoid and non-pygmoid parents, n=12) and non-pygmoid (N/N, n=10). Children (n=28) were P/N. Methods: Measurements included height, weight, sitting height, arm span, head circumference, haematological analysis and serum albumin, calcium, vitamin D, insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). Pubertal stage and bone age was assessed in children. Anthropometric data were expressed as standard deviation score (SDS) for age. IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I/ IGFBP-3 ratio were expressed as SDS for age, bone age and pubertal stage. Results: Mean height SDS showed a gradient from P/P (-4.0) via P/N (-3.2) to N/N (-2.3) (-3.4, -3.1 and -2.2 adjusted for age-associated shrinking). Sitting height and head circumference showed similar gradients. Serum IGF-I SDS was similar among groups (approximately -1 SDS). IGFBP-3 SDS tended toward a gradient from P/P (-1.9) via P/N (-1.5) to N/N (-1.1), but IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was normal in all groups. In P/P and P/N, mean head circumference SDS was >2 SD greater than mean height SDS. Children showed a progressive growth failure and bone age delay, delayed female pubertal onset and an initial low serum IGF-I, normal IGFBP-3 and low IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio. Conclusions: P/P showed proportionate short stature with relative macrocephaly and relatively low IGFBP-3; P/N presented an intermediate pattern. P/N children were progressively short, showed delayed skeletal maturation, delayed puberty in girls and low IGF-I and IGF-I/IGFBP-3. © 2021 De Gruyter. All rights reserved.