Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (LCPUFA) is essential throughout pregnancy, since deficiency of LPUFA may linked to obstetrical complications. This study aimed to investigate LCPUFA status in severe preeclampsia and preterm birth. A cross sectional study was conducted in 104 pregnant women, which divided into normal pregnancy, severe preeclampsia and preterm birth groups. Serum percentage and concentration of total LCPUFA, omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), omega-6, linoleic acid (LA), and arachidonic acid (AA) were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC), bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Severe preeclampsia showed the highest concentration of total PUFA and the lowest DHA percentage, with significantly higher Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio (p = 0.004) and lower omega-3 index (p < 0.002) compared to control. Preterm birth showed the least omega-3 concentrations, with significantly low omega-6 derivates (LA (p = 0.014) and AA (p = 0.025)) compared to control. LCPUFA parameters have shown to increase the risk in both conditions, particularly ALA ≤ 53 µmol/L in preeclampsia with OR 5.44, 95%CI 1.16–25.42 and preterm birth with OR 4.68, 95%CI 1.52–14.38. These findings suggest that severe preeclampsia and preterm birth have an imbalance in LCPUFA status. © 2021, The Author(s).