Background Adverse events (AEs) during drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) treatment, especially with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, remains a major threat to poor DR-TB treatment adherence and outcomes. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the effect of HIV infection on the development of AEs during DR-TB treatment. Methods Eligible studies evaluating the association between HIV seropositivity and risks of AE occurrence in DR-TB patients were included in this systematic review. Interventional and observational studies were assessed for risk of bias using the Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies of Intervention and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale tool, respectively. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled risk ratio (RR) along with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 37 studies involving 8657 patients were included in this systematic review. We discovered that HIV infection independently increased the risk of developing AEs in DR-TB patients by 12% (RR 1.12 [95% CI: 1.02-1.22]; I2 = 0%, p = 0.75). In particular, the risks were more accentuated in the development of hearing loss (RR 1.44 [95% CI: 1.18-1.75]; I2 = 60%), nephrotoxicity (RR 2.45 [95% CI: 1.20-4.98], I2 = 0%), and depression (RR 3.53 [95% CI: 1.38-9.03]; I2 = 0%). Although our findings indicated that the augmented risk was primarily driven by antiretroviral drug usage rather than HIV-related immunosuppression, further studies investigating their independent effects are required to confirm our findings. Conclusion HIV co-infection independently increased the risk of developing AEs during DR-TB treatment. Increased pharmacovigilance through routine assessments of audiological, renal, and mental functions are strongly encouraged to enable prompt diagnosis and treatment in patients experiencing AEs during concomitant DR-TB and HIV treatment. Copyright: © 2021 Lazarus et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.