Postmenopausal women have decreased levels of the hormone estrogen. Reduced estrogen levels will often involve many symptoms that reduced quality of life. This research aims to analyze the effects of Rheum officinale root extract on postmenopausal model rats. To this end, thirty rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX) surgery and six rats were operated without having their ovaries removed. The OVX was confirmed by body weight-uterus weight ratio and a vaginal swab. Six groups of the rats were performed: SHAM group and negative control groups are given vehicle; the positive control was assigned tamoxifen; and the extract has been given three doses 7, 35, and 175 mg/200 g BW, respectively, for 30 days. The calcium content of bone ash was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Blood pressure was evaluated using CODA®, and the metabolites in the blood were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography. As a result, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS, we found that the extract's major component was rhaponticin and its metabolites. The bone calcium levels increased with increasing doses of the extract. In the OVX group, the bone calcium content was decreased significantly 51.56% ± 8.9% g compared with the SHAM group 62.97% ±5.6% g, and the administration of Rheum extract could restore the calcium content of the bone to become 69.27% ± 3.8% g. From the above data, we concluded that Rheum root extracts contain astrigin, rhaponticin, rhapontigenin, and desoxyrhaponticin. Rheum root extract could improve calcium content and lipid profiles of OVX rats by stimulation osteoblastogenesis. Rheum root extracts could control the blood pressure of OVX rats by reducing lipid profiles. © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.